Every time I set foot in St Peters Square, I am taken aback.
I try to take it all in - Saint Peter's Basilica as backdrop, the perfectly symmetrical columns of Bernini's colonnade, the ancient Egyptian obelisk, the Baroque beauty of the façade and fountains.
If you're visiting Rome, chances are you are also visiting the Vatican.
And if you do, you can say that you've visited a whole different country than Italy!
Here's everything you need to know about St Peters Square in Rome:
Saint Peter's Square, Piazza San Pietro in Italian, is the huge open-air space in front of Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.
The first impact it has on me is the sheer size - 320 meters long and 240 meters wide at the ellipse (1050 x 787 feet).
The second thing that strikes me is the jaw-dropping symmetry of the colonnade, wide open in embrace.
Once I let this feeling wash over me, I take in all the elements that make the piazza so beautiful - the ancient Egyptian obelisk at the center, the twin fountains on either side, their sparkling water droplets reflecting the sunlight, and of course, one of the most beautiful basilicas in the world.
The basilica of St. Peter you see today was built mostly during the Renaissance. The original basilica, now referred to as "old Saint Peter's" was built during the reign of Roman Emperor Constantine in the 4th century. By the late 15th century, it was literally falling apart, and leaning heavily to one side.
In 1506 Pope Julius II ordered a new basilica built.
Many artists and architects were involved in the design of the current basilica, most famously Michelangelo.
The basilica was officially finished in 1626.
Now that the basilica was so stunning, it was time to turn to the space in front of it.
At this point, the only thing there was the ancient Egyptian obelisk that Domenico Fontana had moved there only decades prior.
In 1655 Fabio Chigi became Pope, taking the name of Alexander VII. He was an intelligent and well-read man with a taste for literature and the arts.
On the day he was elected, Pope Alexander VII summoned Gian Lorenzo Bernini to discuss ideas for repurposing the space in front of Saint Peter's Basilica.
Bernini had already been working on the interior of the basilica for decades. Most famously, he'd made the "baldacchino", or bronze canopy above the papal altar.
Bernini conceived of the wide-open elliptical design you see today, as a way to give a sense of the church welcoming the faithful and non-faithful alike. The idea was also to awe and convert infidels, "enlightening them about the true faith" (Bernini). Finally, Bernini wanted to make sure as many people as possible could watch the Pope when he addressed the crowds from above.
Construction of piazza began in 1656 and was completed in 1667. The project used 44,000 cubic meters of travertine stone (brought from nearby Tivoli) and required hundreds of workers.
In the middle of Saint Peter's Square stands an un-inscribed Egyptian obelisk made of red granite. It is one of 8 ancient Egyptian obelisks in Rome. (There are 13 ancient obelisks in Rome but the other 5 were Roman-made. You can read more about Rome's obelisks on the Rome Art Lover website.)
The obelisk was originally erected in the Temple of the Sun in Heliopolis (today part of Cairo), Egypt. It's possible it was built under Pharaoh Mencares in 1835 BCE. Other scholars think it may have been carved during the reign of Nebkaure Amenemhet II (1992 - 1985 BCE).
Around 30 BCE the Roman prefect Cornelius Gallus raised the obelisk in the Forum Iulium in Alexandria, Egypt by order of Rome's first Emperor, Augustus.
In 37 CE the 3rd Roman Emperor, Caligula, had the obelisk transferred to Rome. It was lowered onto rollers, and moved to a specially constructed ship. You can see an image of what this was like in the Gallery of the Maps in the Vatican Museums.
The obelisk was placed on the central spine of the Circus of Caligula, where chariot races and other games were held. This circus later became known as the Circus of Nero, named for Rome's fifth emperor.
This is where Saint Peter is said to have been martyred under Nero's orders in 64 CE.
And that's why the basilica stands where it does today. (Click here to read about visiting Saint Peter's tomb.)
The obelisk is 25-meters (84 feet) tall, or 40 meters (135 feet) if we count its pedestal. It weighs about 330 tons. It is supported by four bronze lions at its base and topped by a bronze coat of arms of Pope Sixtus V.
The Vatican obelisk is the only (ancient) obelisk in Rome that never fell and broke apart.
In the Middle Ages, some attributed this to the fact that Nero was a sorcerer. Others have credited the fact that the obelisk was the last witness to the martyrdom of Saint Peter.
At one time, it was topped by a gilt ball that many during the Middle Ages thought contained the ashes of Caesar, Augustus, and Tiberius. Eventually, Domenico Fontana studied the ball and determined that it was single-cast and seamless, and that therefore nothing could be inside. You can see the ball today in the Capitoline Museums.
The obelisk is the oldest thing in St. Peter's Square, and may well be the oldest obelisk in Rome (that distinction officially falls to the Lateran obelisk, near San Giovanni in Lateran, because we are not sure of the exact dating of the Vatican obelisk.)
POPE SIXTUS V - 1586
Beginning around the mid-1400s, various popes wanted to move the obelisk from its original spot close to the left transept so that it would be centered in front of Saint Peter's Basilica. This would require moving it just 300 meters (around 800 feet). Yet it seemed an impossible task. Supposedly even Michelangelo refused to try.
In 1586 Pope Sixtus V asked for architects and engineers to submit ideas for how to move the obelisk. Over 500 men offered proposals. In the end, the Pope chose his favorite architect, Domenico Fontana, who'd created a small model that demonstrated how the obelisk could be moved. You can actually see and read the book Domenico Fontana wrote about it, on the New York Public Library digital archive website.
The move required 900 men, 75 (or more) horses, and 44 winches.
Fontana succeeded on September 10, 1586 after a 5-month long operation.
And so the ancient Egyptian obelisk brought to Rome by Emperor Caligula became the first element of what is today St Peters Square.
There's a cute story about this event:
Supposedly, Pope Sixtus V had ordered absolute silence during the delicate operation, on pain of death.
But a sharp Genovese sailor by the name of Benedetto Bresca saw that some ropes were fraying from the heavy friction, and he yelled "Acqua alle funi!" (Water on the ropes!).
This saved the obelisk from falling and breaking. Rather than punish him, the Pope rewarded the man by offering him the favor of his choice.
The sailor asked, and was granted, that all the Vatican's Palm Sunday fronds be purchased in his home town of Bordighera. They still are to this day.
The obelisk also acts as a sun dial (as many obelisks did in ancient times). You can follow the sun's shadow along 5 zodiac signs inlaid on the pavement.
The piazza is paved with a combination of cobblestones and travertine blocks. The white travertine strips radiate out from the central hub (the obelisk), to further emphasize the symmetry of the square.
Also on the pavement, you'll find two white marble disks - one for the summer solstice and one for the winter solstice.
At noon on December 21, the obelisk's shadow falls on the marble disk furthest from the obelisk's base. At noon on June 21, the tip of the shadow falls on the marble disk closest to the base of the obelisk.
A long, thin white travertine strip runs across the width of the piazza and acts as meridian line, which indicates when the sun is at its highest point in the sky.
In 1613 architect Carlo Maderno (Domenico Fontana's nephew), who'd designed the façade of Saint Peter's basilica, modified an existing fountain that was to the right of the obelisk as you faced the church. His fountain was proclaimed to be the most beautiful fountain in the world at the time.
When Bernini designed the square some 50 years later, he realized that to maintain symmetry, there needed to be an identical copy of Maderno's fountain on the left side. He may have designed it himself or he may have had his contemporary Carlo Fontana (no relation to either Carlo Maderno or Domenico Fontana) design the fountain, which was completed in 1677.
You can tell the two fountains apart if you look at the coats of arms on the bases. They represent the popes who commissioned them - The eagle and dragon belong to Pope Paul V (Borghese), while the stars belong to Pope Clement X (Altieri).
Bernini designed his colonnade so that it would seem as if the two arms were reaching out in a giant embrace. The shape symbolized the arms of the church embracing the world.
The colonnades consist of four rows of Doric columns, for a total of 284, with 88 pilasters. The columns are 20 meters high (66 ft) and 1.6 meters wide (5ft).
The columns are 4-deep, which results in 3 parallel lanes. You can drive down the central one, and the other lanes are for pedestrians only.
The colonnade is crowned with the Chigi coats of arms, as he (Pope Alexander VII) was the one who commissioned it. In fact you will see his coat of arms in a lot of places in St Peters Square and in many other spots around Rome.
On top of Bernini's colonnade are 140 statues of saints. Disciples of Bernini made them in 1670. They are about 3 meters (9 feet) tall, and represent many important figures in Catholicism, like popes, saints, and martyrs. Thirty-eight of the statues depict women.
You will also see two statues on either side of the basilica, representing Saints Peter and Paul, patron saints of Rome.
One fun thing to do in St Peters Square is to check out the optical illusions.
The first optical illusion involves Saint Peter's dome.
If you stand right underneath the façade, you can't even see the dome.
The further you move away from the façade, and even out of St Peters Square, the more and more you will see of the dome, and the taller it will seem.
In fact, the best way to see Saint Peter's dome is not even in St Peters Square, but from a bridge on the Tiber river.
The second optical illusion is the colonnade itself.
Just next to the obelisk in the center of the square, look for the circular marble plates that indicate the foci of the ellipse. They have the phrase "centro del colonnato" (center of the colonnade) on them. If you stand on either one of these and look towards the colonnade, you will see only one row of perfectly aligned columns instead of four.
The colonnade marks the border between Italy and Vatican State.
A strip of travertine on the ground joins the two ends of the colonnade, and marks the border between the two countries.
Right near the obelisk, you can spot a stone that represents the Rose of the Winds, with the southwest wind the “libeccio”.
One of the nearby cobblestones is in the shape of a heart (you have to look pretty carefully).
Depending on which legend you prefer, this is:
On most Wednesdays when the Pope is in town, the Pope gives the Papal Audience in St Peters Square. The exceptions are July, when the Pope is on vacation, and on very cold or rainy days when the audience is held inside the Paul VI Hall instead.
On Sundays when the Pope is in town, he delivers the Angelus Domini from a window of the Apostolic Palace.
On special occasions, such as the election of a new pope, a canonization, or on Easter, 3-400,000 people can fill the huge square.
St Peters Square is a beautiful place to visit at Christmas, when there is a gorgeous tree and life-sized nativity scene right in the center.
St Peters Square is free to visit and open daily from 6:30 am - 11 pm. It used to be wide open even all night long but in recent years they put up a small barricade and now it's closed at night.
You may freely visit Saint Peter's Square as long as there is no event happening there, such as a Papal Mass or Audience.
For any such event, you can expect to have to go through security before you even set foot in the square.
It's free to visit the piazza, and you can visit it (almost) every day from 6:30 am - 11 pm. And when you cross over the white line onto the square, you are literally leaving one country (Italy) and entering another one (Vatican state).
Vatican City is on the west side of River Tiber. Most of the other tourist attractions in Rome (Pantheon, Spanish Steps, Trevi Fountain, Colosseum, Piazza Navona) are on the east side.
So you'll need to cross the Tiber River to visit St Peters Square.
The best way to arrive at St Peters Square is by walking up the Via della Conciliazione, a street that begins at Castel Sant'Angelo. This gives you a dramatic introduction to the square and the basilica as you move closer.
You can also enter St Peters Square from either side.
Besides walking, you can also reach St. Peter's Square using public transport.
From Rome center: The easiest way to get to the Vatican is with the Metro. Take the red line A to Ottaviano. When you get out of the station, you won't see the Vatican but just follow the crowds. Walk down Via Ottaviano until Piazza Risorgimento. Continue to Via di Porta Angelica at the end of which you will catch a glimpse of the famous colonnade through a small archway.
You can also get to St Peters Square by bus. Lines 62, 64, , 190, 916, 46, 98, 982, 46 and 881 all stop at Via di Porta Cavalleggeri.
From Roma Termini Station, you can take bus 40 (stop P.ZA PIA/CASTEL S. ANGELO) and after 7 stops get off at TRASPONTINA/CONCILIAZIONE, close to Via della Conciliazione.
If you are coming to St Peters Square for a visit to the Vatican on a cruise stop, you can easily take the train.
At Civitavecchia train station take the first Rome-bound regional train. The ride should take under an hour. Get off at Roma San Pietro Train Station. It's about a 10-minute walk to the square from there.